of the body below the ribs, lungs, and above the hip bones. Contains many
of the body organs: Stomach, small and large bowel, pancreas, liver, spleen,
given to anywhere in the abdomen. This is the area below the ribs and above
the hip bones. See Abdomen.
effects of treatment to the abdomen. See Abdomen.
scan of the area below the waist, using sound waves to make up a picture
of the organs inside the body.
(Responsible For Hearing)
growing, benign Brain Tumor. Grows on the Auditory Nerve. See Benign, Schwannoma.
drug. Term used in drug trials to distinguish between drug and Placebo.
See Clinical Trials, Placebo.
cancer of Glandular Tissue. A Glandular tissue is a tissue made up of cells
that secrete (make and give off) something. For example, an Adenocarcinoma
of the lung, is a cancer of the Glandular Cells Lining the airways that
secrete Mucus. See Mucus, Non
Small Cell Lung Cancer.
tissue at the back of the nose.
that is being taken after surgery, to try to prevent a cancer from coming
back. See Tamoxifen.
treatment given in addition to the main treatment (for example, Chemotherapy,
as well as surgery) to try to prevent a cancer from coming back.
small glands, one on top of each kidney. They are in two parts: The Cortex
which makes steroids and small amounts of the sex hormones; and
the Medulla which makes adrenaline. See Steroids.
usually used, to mean cancer, that has spread from where it started to
another part of the body.
means Lymph Nodes that have cancer cells in them.
found on peanuts that can cause Primary Liver Cancer.
about Internal Radiotherapy. The tubes which will hold the radioactive
source, are put in under anesthetic. The radioactive source is put in after
you are back on the ward, or "after loaded". See Radioactive
Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Condition resulting from infection with HIV
(Human Immunodeficiency Virus). People with AIDS are slightly more likely
to get Lymphoma than the general population.
pipes that make up the Respiratory System. See Bronchi,
found in the bloodstream of some men with Testicular Cancer. The level
rises when the cancer is growing and falls when the cancer is shrinking.
So a blood test can measure the progress of the disease and success of
(Donor Stem Cell Transplants, Donor Transplant)
a Bone Marrow Transplant using Bone Marrow from a donor. The donor must
be tested to check that their marrow is as close a match as possible to
the person receiving it, so that the marrow is less likely to be rejected.
Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplants are just beginning to be done experimentally.
See Bone Marrow Transplant,
bags at the end of the airways in the lungs. This is where oxygen is absorbed
into the bloodstream and the waste gas carbon dioxide filters back to be
used to treat Breast Cancer which stops the Adrenal Gland from making sex
hormones. Has to be taken with Steroid tablets as it also stops steroid
production. See Adrenal Glands, Steroids.
look at something.
or joining together. In bowel surgery, part of the bowel can be cut out
and the two cut ends joined together or anastomosed.
used to treat Breast Cancer. Hormone treatment which stops Estrogen being
produced. See also Aromatase Inhibitors.
short of Red Blood Cells, and so having a Low Blood Hemoglobin. Measured
by blood test. Treated with iron tablets or blood transfusion.
(General Anesthetic, Local Anesthetic)
which stops feeling, especially pain. A General Anesthetic will also make
you unconscious. A Local Anesthetic just stops feeling in part of the body.
of blood vessels. Growing cancers can attract new blood vessels to grow
towards them so that they can get their own blood supply.
given off by cells that cause new blood vessels to grow. See Angiogenesis.
is another word for male sex hormone. An Anti Androgen, is a drug that
stops male sex hormones from being produced or stops them working. See
that can stop cancers from forming their own blood supply. There is research
going on into this that will hopefully form the basis of a new type of
which fight Bacterial Infections.
Proteins, that are produced by White Blood Cells when the body recognizes
that something foreign (unfamiliar) has got in; for example, Infecting
Bacteria. The antibodies attach themselves to the invading bacteria or
viruses, which are then destroyed. See Immune
Response, White Blood Cells.
(Anti Diarrhea Tablets)
to stop diarrhea. See Diarrhea.
(Anti Emetics, Anti Emetic Drug)
foreign to the body that stimulates the white blood cells to make antibodies.
See Antibodies, Immune
System, Immune Response.
to the outside of the body, at the end of the bowel and rectum.
Cell Death'. Normal cells automatically die off once they have reproduced
about 60 times.
for Radioactive Source, which is put inside the Vagina during Internal
Radiotherapy for cancer of the Cervix or Vagina. See Radioactive
group of drugs used to treat Breast Cancer. Works by affecting the way
the Adrenal Glands work, and stopping them from producing Estrogen (a female
sex Hormone) in Post Menopausal women. See Adrenal
(swelling) of the joints.
(A Female Sex Hormone)
or lozenges used to moisten the mouth in people who don't make enough saliva
naturally. See Saliva.
fibrous material made from Silica. Very heat resistant, so was often used
in the past in buildings for insulation. Now banned because it is a health
risk. Exposure to asbestos, can cause a lung disease called, Asbestosis,
and also a type of cancer that affects the lungs called Mesothelioma. Mesothelioma
can occur up to 40 years after the exposure to asbestos.
collected in the abdomen. Can be a sign of cancer affecting the liver or
ovaries. See Abdomen.
killer and anti-inflammatory drug. Also used as a type of blood thinner.
Should not be taken regularly without the advice of a doctor, or on an
of Brain Tumor. Most common type of Glioma. Develops from cells called
Astrocytes. Grade IV Astrocytoma, also called Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Clinical Trial, to find out for how long, women who have had surgery for
early Breast Cancer, should take Tamoxifen. See Clinical
disease caused when the body mistakenly identifies something that is natural
to it as foreign. For example, Rheumatoid Arthritis is a disease caused
by an antibody reaction to the body's own joints. See Antibodies,
Marrow or Stem Cell Transplant using the person's own marrow or stem cells.
Their cancer is put into remission and some of their own Marrow or Stem
Cells taken out. This is frozen and stored while the person has high dose
Chemotherapy Treatment (and sometimes Radiotherapy). The Marrow or Stem
Cells are then given back. See Bone
Chemotherapy, Stem Cell Transplant.
to remove all the Lymph Glands from under the arm. See Lymph
to remove some, or all, of the Lymph Glands from under the arm. See Lymph