(Tuberculosis Vaccine, TB)
to prevent Tuberculosis (TB). You should not have this vaccination if you
are having Chemotherapy, as it is 'live'. See Chemotherapy,
cancer of the Lymphatic System, where the cells that have become cancerous
are a type of White Blood Cell called, B Lymphocytes. See B
of White Blood Cell. Lymphocytes make up a quarter to a third of the White
Blood Cells. Then, there are two types of Lymphocytes, B and T Cells. The
B Lymphocytes make Antibodies, in response to disease or anything the body
recognizes as foreign. The Antibody Response is part of the Immune Response.
A cancer of the B Lymphocytes, is called a, B Cell Lymphoma. See Antibodies,
group of symptoms which doctors use to stage Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The
B symptoms are unexplained high temperatures, heavy sweating at night,
weight loss (losing at least 10% of total body weight). See Non
Cell Micro-organisms. Some of these cause diseases if they get into the
body through a cut, the digestive system, respiratory system. etc. Most
bacterial infections can be cured by antibiotics, but there are some bacteria
which are becoming resistant.
(Barium Enema, Barium Meal)
is actually a soft, white metal. Barium Sulfate is used for X rays of the
Digestive System. It is given as a white liquid drink (Barium Meal) or
into the back passage (Barium Enema). X rays cannot go through it, so when
the X ray pictures are taken, the outline of the stomach or bowel shows
up on the X ray. See X ray.
of contraception which put a barrier between the penis and cervix - for
example, Condom (Sheath) or Cap.
layer of tissue that cells 'sit' on. If cancer cells from a tumor have
broken through the 'basement membrane', then the cancer can spread and
is called 'invasive'. See Cell,
research drug that may be 'antiangiogenic' i.e. stop blood vessels from
supplying a growing cancer. See Angiogenesis,
of breast implant which is inflated with Sterile salt water, to the same
size as the natural breast.
in the breast which are not cancerous.
filled breast lump which is not cancerous.
growths which are not cancerous. Polyps can be found on the skin or inside
Pro Static Hyperplasia
called Enlarged Prostate. Literally means non cancerous growth of the Cells
of the Prostate Gland.
cancerous. A Benign Tumor is a harmless growth, which may or may not be
best treatment being used at the moment for a particular cancer or situation.
substance found in some fruit and vegetables, for example, carrots. Converted
into vitamin A in the body. See Vitamin
prefer one thing to another and so look at it more favorably. It is possible
to do this without knowing it, which is why some Trials are designed so
that no one knows which patient is having which treatment. See Clinical
Androgen Tablet (also called Casodex). Stops the testicles from producing
Testosterone (the male sex hormone).
to remove Two lobes of the lung.
name for, Immunotherapy. See Immunotherapy.
piece of body tissue taken so that the cells can be looked at under a microscope.
of drugs used to treat high levels of Calcium in the blood. See also Hypercalcaemia.
bag that urine collects in before it is passed out of the body.
out the bladder after a prostate or bladder operation. A Urinary Catheter
is put into the bladder via the penis. The catheter is connected to a bag
of sterile water or salt solution which flushes out any clots of blood
Trial where the patient does not know whether they are having the treatment
that is being tested, or a Fake Inactive Treatment (Placebo) that appears
to be the same. See Clinical
or Central Line that is blocked. Can sometimes be unblocked, or may have
to be Resited (put in again). See Central
are three types of blood cells: White Cells which fight infection;
Red Cells which carry oxygen around the body; and Platelets which help
the blood to clot. See Platelets,
Blood Cells, White
of a fat called, Cholesterol in the blood. People with high levels of Cholesterol
are thought more likely to have heart attacks.
(Blood Cell Count)
test to count how many of each type of blood cells there are in the blood.
See Blood Cells.
much there is of something in the blood.
pressure in the Circulatory System. Blood pressure is an Indicator of general
health. It is measured with two numbers, one on top of the other. The number
on the top is the pressure measured, when, the heart is pumping the blood
through; the number underneath is. the pressure between heart beats, when
the heart is at rest. In other words, blood pressure is measured as the
maximum pressure over the minimum pressure.
circulating blood in the body.
much sugar is in the blood. If the blood sugar becomes too high, this could
indicate diabetes. The normal range is between 2.5 - 4.7 mmol/l although
this can be higher after a meal.
on samples of blood to check general health or to look for specific substances
(for example, PSA, HCG and APP levels). See Hormones,
extra blood via a drip into a vein. Can be own blood collected earlier
and stored, or more usually blood donated by someone else.
(Artery, Arteries, Blood Vessel, Capillary, Capillaries, Vein(s))
which carry blood around the body. There are three types of blood vessels.
The largest are, Arteries, which carry blood containing oxygen around the
body. Veins carry blood back to the heart to pick up more oxygen. The smallest
blood vessels are capillaries which join Arteries to veins. The capillaries
carry the blood and its oxygen to all the tissues of the body.
we imagine ourselves physically. After surgery that changes body appearance,
it can be sometime before we get used to seeing ourselves differently.
substance in the center of the bones where Red and White Blood Cells and
Platelets are made.
Bone Marrow for Transplanting later on. The harvest is done under General
Anesthetic and, usually means an overnight stay in hospital. Up to six
punctures are made over the hip bones (and less usually, the chest bone).
The Marrow is sucked out of the puncture sites into a syringe. For adults,
about a liter of Bone Marrow is taken. This is then frozen until
it is needed for transplant. The after effects, are bruising at the puncture
sites for a few days. Paracetamol is usually given for this. See Bone
Marrow Transplant, General
(Bone Marrow Biopsy, Bone Marrow Test, Sample of Bone Marrow)
a small amount of Bone Marrow to see if there are any Cancer Cells in it.
A Local Anesthetic is put into the skin over the hip bone. A needle is
put into the hip and a small amount of Bone Marrow sucked out. This is
examined under a microscope. The test takes only a few minutes, but can
be uncomfortable. Some people prefer to have a Sedative as well as the
Local Anesthetic. See Biopsy, Bone
(BMT, Bone Marrow Transplants)
for cancer (and some other diseases). Very high doses of Chemotherapy are
given to kill cancer. This also kills the Bone Marrow, so a Transfusion
(Drip) containing Bone Marrow needs to be given. This can be the patient's
own Marrow, which has been frozen and stored (Autologous Transplant) or
someone else's that matches the patient's (Allogeneic Transplant). See
that has spread to the bones from a cancer somewhere else in the body.
which looks for damage to bone. A small dose of a Radioactive Substance
is injected into the bloodstream, gets into the bones, and is then photographed
with a special camera, called, A Gamma Camera. Damaged bone takes up more
radioactivity and so gives off more radiation. This shows up as a 'hot
spot' on the scan.
dose of Radiotherapy given to part of the Radiotherapy field at the end
of a course of treatment. See Radiotherapy
of the Colon or Rectum. Also called Colorectal Cancer. See Colon,
often you normally open your bowels (go to the toilet).
solid waste left over from digested food that is passed out of the body.
in the bowel. Can be completely or partly blocked.
out the inside of the bowel. A tube is put into the bowel through the Anus.
Clean or sterile water is flushed through the tube and allowed to drain
out again. This is repeated until the water is clean. Usually done before
major surgery to the bowel, to lower the risk of infection after the operation.
word for Internal Radiotherapy. See Internal
Tumor or Malignant Tumor (cancer) of part of the brain. There are many
different types of Brain Tumors, depending on which type of brain cells
are affected. See Benign, Malignant.
See also Primary
of the breast, usually in women, but does occur rarely in men.
that increase the risk of getting Breast Cancer. Only 5% of Breast Cancers
are caused by Inherited Genes. Carriers of BRCA1 are thought to have a
90% risk of developing Breast Cancer at some point in their lives.
Artificial Breast, for use by women who have had a Segmentectomy.
examination of the breasts, to look for anything wrong, including lumps.
Can be done by a doctor or Breast Care Nurse.
breast put under the skin, during an operation. Used to replace a breast
that has had to be removed for medical reasons. Can also be used for cosmetic
reasons to make the breast look bigger. See also Breast
in the breast that may or may not be cancerous. NINE out of TEN
breast lumps, are not cancer.
breasts. Can be external (worn outside the body in a bra) or internal (put
in during an operation).
to make a new breast, after one has been removed. Can be done by putting
in a Breast Implant, or by using muscle and skin from the back or abdomen.
healthy women to see if Breast Cancer can be picked up early; usually before
there are any symptoms. See Mammogram.
aware of how one's breasts normally look and feel so that any abnormal
changes will be noticed as soon as possible.
of the breast.
of the breast, using sound waves.
getting one's breath.
airways of the lungs. The main Bronchi are the airways that connect the
windpipe (Trachea) to each lung. There is a right and a left Bronchus.
The Bronchi connect to the Secondary Bronchi, that go to each lobe of the
lungs. There are even smaller Tertiary Bronchi, that go to each segment
of the lungs. See Airways,
are the smallest airways in the lungs. They connect the smallest Tertiary
Bronchi to the Alveoli (air sacs), where oxygen is absorbed. See Airways,
flexible tube with an eye piece and a light, that enables doctors to see
inside the windpipe (Trachea) and the main airways of the lungs.
medical examination of the airways. A sedative is given to the patient,
then a flexible tube is put down the nose or into the mouth, and down into
the airways. The doctor can see the inside of the airways, using an eye
piece. Samples of tissue can be taken (Biopsies) for examination under
the microscope. You can have a Bronchoscopy as an out patient, but will
need someone to take you home afterwards, because of the sedative. See