two identical cells that are formed when a cell reproduces itself by splitting
into two. See Cell
to remove as much of a large tumor as can be removed. This is done to
make it easier to treat the cancer that is left.
Reconstruction carried out some time after the operation to remove the
is said to be in denial when they cannot accept or believe what has happened
thread or tape specially made for cleaning between the teeth.
mood. Feeling sad, lacking in energy, often dwelling on problems and feelings
which is correctly placed in the scrotum.
something, as in detecting cancer.
out what is wrong - usually used about illness.
'diafram'. Sheet of muscle under the rib cage. Moves up and down when we
breathe. Separates the thoracic cavity (containing the lungs and the heart)
from the abdominal cavity (containing the organs of the digestive system).
frequent, loose stools from the bowels.
trained to provide advice on diet during illness and using diet to manage
type of lymphoma. The lymphocyte cells appear large under the microscope
and are spread out rather than clumped together. This is an intermediate
grade lymphoma. See Diffuse Type, Grade:
type of lymphoma. Under the microscope the cells are mixed small and large
lymphocytes and are spread out rather than clumped together. This is an
intermediate grade lymphoma. See Diffuse Type,
type of lymphoma. Under the microscope the lymphocytes appear small and
have a split in them (cleaved). They are spread out rather than clumped
together. This is an intermediate grade lymphoma. See Diffuse
to types of lymphoma. Lymphoma can be follicular (sometimes called nodular)
or diffuse. Under the microscope the cells in follicular type are grouped
together. In diffuse type they are spread out. Diffuse type lymphoma can
be B or T cell. See B
system that digests food. Includes the mouth, stomach, large and small
intestines, and rectum (back passage).
in relation to breast cancer to mean obvious dips and puckering in the
skin over the breast. Can be a sign of breast cancer.
disease. You can have a vaccination against diptheria if you are having
chemotherapy. See Vaccination.
leaking of fluid from a wound or part of the body - for example, vaginal
that is specially trained to visit and treat people in their own homes.
The community nurse can make assessments about how you are managing and
arrange other services such as home help. The nurse can also dress wounds,
remove stitches and attend to central lines. Some also take blood and give
drug treatment at home.
for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid. Genes are made of DNA. DNA is the ‘Genetic Code’
that controls how the body’S cells behave by controlling the type of protein
they make. We inherit half our DNA code from our mother and half from our
father. See Chromosome,
radiotherapy treatment is planned, the total dose needed to kill the cancer
is worked out. This depends on where in the body is being treated. The
total dose is then broken down into a number of treatments called fractions.
Usually one fraction is given per day. All the fractions added together
add up to the total dose. See Fraction,
where neither the doctor nor the patient know which treatment the patient
is having. This is done to try to prevent bias affecting the trial results.
or channel which carries the output of a gland. For example, there are
ducts in the breasts which carry milk to the nipple.
Carcinoma In Situ
of early breast cancer affecting the ducts of the breast. Means the cancer
cells are all inside the Ducts (passageways) of the breast and have not
broken out. This is important as it means the chance of the cancer cells
having spread anywhere else in the body is very low indeed.
of bowel cancer. Means the cancer is just in the lining of the bowel and
has not grown into the wall of the bowel.
of bowel cancer. Means the cancer is growing into the wall of the bowel.
But there is no cancer in any of the lymph nodes around the bowel.
of bowel cancer. Means that at least one of the lymph nodes near the bowel
contains cancer cells.
of bowel cancer. Means that the cancer has spread to another part of the
of classifying bowel cancer according to stage. There are four groups,
Duke's A to Duke's D. 'A' is the earliest cancer and 'D' a cancer that
has spread. See Stage.
long a response to a treatment lasts. For example, if a treatment stops
a cancer from growing, the duration of response is the time between having
the treatment and the cancer beginning to grow again.