Early Breast Cancer

Breast cancer that has not spread outside the breast or lymph nodes under the arm.

Early Cancer

Means a cancer that has been diagnosed at an early stage. In other words it is a small tumor that has not spread. See Stage.

Early Detection

In medicine means finding a disease as early as possible, maybe before there are any symptoms.

Early Menopause
(Premature Menopause)

Change of life which happens before it naturally should. This can be due to some cancer treatments - for example, radiotherapy to the ovaries, or some chemotherapy treatment.


The expulsion of sperm from the penis during orgasm.


Medical test of the heart. Small pads are stuck to the chest around the heart. Wires are attached to the pads. These are connected to a machine that takes an electrical recording of the heart beat. Doctors can examine the trace of the heart beat to see if the heart is working normally.

Endobronchial Therapy

Literally means treatment given inside the bronchi. Type of radiotherapy given inside the airways of the lung. A bronchoscopy is done and a radioactive source put down the bronchoscope. This can deliver a dose of radiation directly to a tumor inside the bronchus. Usually done if a tumor is blocking, or partly blocking an airway. See Airways, Bronchoscopy, Bronchi, Internal Radiotherapy, Radioactive Source.

Endometrial Cancer

Cancer of the lining of the womb.


The lining of the womb.


Putting liquid into the rectum (back passage) to clear it out.

Enlarged Glands

(Enlarged Lymph Nodes, Swollen Lymph Nodes)
Lymph Glands which are bigger than they should be. This can happen for a number of reasons, only one of which is that they contain cancer cells.

Entry Criteria

List of conditions that must be fulfilled in order to get into a trial. For example, having a particular type of cancer.


Enzymes are proteins that control chemical reactions in the body. For example, the digestive enzymes help food to be broken down so it can be absorbed.


Type of brain tumor. Rare type of glioma. Affects the ependymal cells of the brain and can be found anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Most often found in the main part of the brain (cerebrum). See Glioma.


Coiled tube lying on top of the testicle which collects sperm from the collecting tubules and carries it out of the testicle.

Epithelial Tissue

The skin tissue that covers the outside and inside of the body. It covers all the body organs, lines all the tubes and cavities of the body. Cancers of epithelial tissue are called carcinomas.


Stiffening of the penis when sexually aroused.

Excision Biopsy

Operation to remove a lump so that it can be looked at under the microscope.

Existing Treatment

Accepted treatment that is being used at the moment. This may be what a new treatment is compared to in a trial. See Clinical Trial.

Exit Site

When radiotherapy is given, the radiation passes through the body. The place where it comes out is called the exit site. The skin here can become sensitive during the treatment period.

Experimental Group

In research, a group of patients who are having the treatment being tested in a trial. See Clinical Trial.

Extensive Disease

Term used by doctors to mean cancer that is widespread within the body or within a particular organ of the body. Also a stage of small cell lung cancer of the lung. Extensive disease is cancer that has spread outside the lung to the chest or to other parts of the body.

External Radiotherapy

Treatment with high energy waves which are beamed at a cancer (or the area where a cancer was) from outside the body.

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