cancer that has not spread outside the breast or lymph nodes under the
a cancer that has been diagnosed at an early stage. In other words it is
a small tumor that has not spread. See Stage.
medicine means finding a disease as early as possible, maybe before there
are any symptoms.
of life which happens before it naturally should. This can be due to some
cancer treatments - for example, radiotherapy to the ovaries, or some chemotherapy
expulsion of sperm from the penis during orgasm.
test of the heart. Small pads are stuck to the chest around the heart.
Wires are attached to the pads. These are connected to a machine that takes
an electrical recording of the heart beat. Doctors can examine the trace
of the heart beat to see if the heart is working normally.
means treatment given inside the bronchi. Type of radiotherapy given inside
the airways of the lung. A bronchoscopy is done and a radioactive source
put down the bronchoscope. This can deliver a dose of radiation directly
to a tumor inside the bronchus. Usually done if a tumor is blocking,
or partly blocking an airway. See Airways,
of the lining of the womb.
lining of the womb.
liquid into the rectum (back passage) to clear it out.
(Enlarged Lymph Nodes, Swollen Lymph Nodes)
Glands which are bigger than they should be. This can happen for a number
of reasons, only one of which is that they contain cancer cells.
of conditions that must be fulfilled in order to get into a trial. For
example, having a particular type of cancer.
are proteins that control chemical reactions in the body. For example,
the digestive enzymes help food to be broken down so it can be absorbed.
of brain tumor. Rare type of glioma. Affects the ependymal cells of the
brain and can be found anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Most often
found in the main part of the brain (cerebrum). See Glioma.
tube lying on top of the testicle which collects sperm from the collecting
tubules and carries it out of the testicle.
skin tissue that covers the outside and inside of the body. It covers all
the body organs, lines all the tubes and cavities of the body. Cancers
of epithelial tissue are called carcinomas.
of the penis when sexually aroused.
to remove a lump so that it can be looked at under the microscope.
treatment that is being used at the moment. This may be what a new treatment
is compared to in a trial. See Clinical
radiotherapy is given, the radiation passes through the body. The place
where it comes out is called the exit site. The skin here can become sensitive
during the treatment period.
research, a group of patients who are having the treatment being tested
in a trial. See Clinical
used by doctors to mean cancer that is widespread within the body or within
a particular organ of the body. Also a stage of small cell lung cancer
of the lung. Extensive disease is cancer that has spread outside the lung
to the chest or to other parts of the body.
with high energy waves which are beamed at a cancer (or the area where
a cancer was) from outside the body.