slow growing type of brain tumor. Develops from blood vessel cells in the
brain. Almost always benign.
where blood has collected under the skin.
where the blood cells are made. The bone marrow in adults.
in red blood cells. Iron containing pigment which carries oxygen around
the body. See Red Blood Cells.
in which the hair grows in the scalp. The hair follicles are damaged by
some chemotherapy drugs. This is why chemotherapy often causes hair loss.
And Neck Cancer
(Head And Neck)
used by doctors to mean cancer affecting the lip, mouth, nose etc. Does
not usually mean cancers of the oesophagus (gullet) or larynx (voice box).
of white blood cell. Helper T cells stimulate B cells to make antibodies
as part of the immune response. See Antibodies,
Cells, Immune System, T
treatment of half the body at a time. Usually used to treat secondary bone
which stops the blood from clotting. Sometimes said it "thins the blood".
blood vessel carrying blood to the liver.
Artery Infusional Chemotherapy
(Hepatic Artery Pump)
that is given straight into the main blood vessel to the liver. Used to
treat secondary bowel cancer in the liver.
(Hepatitis A Vaccine)
disease. You can have a vaccination against hepatitis A if you are having
chemotherapy. See Vaccination.
(Hepatitis B Vaccine)
disease. You can have a vaccination against hepatitis B if you are having
on of characteristics to the next generation. These can be physical or
mental characteristics or the tendency to develop particular illnesses.
We inherit these characteristics from our parents through our genes and
chromosomes. The chromosomes are made up of genes. We inherit half our
chromosomes (and so half our genes) from our mother and half from our father.
of central line that is put into the chest under anaesthetic. See Central
drug treatment using very high drug doses. Needs to be followed by a transfusion
of bone marrow or stem cells. See
Marrow Transplant, Chemotherapy,
Factor Sun Cream
cream which provides maximum protection against ultra violet light. Usually
factor 20-25. It is important that anyone who has had skin cancer, or who
has had radiotherapy should use a high factor sun cream. They should also
stay out of the sun as much as possible. Some chemotherapy drugs can also
cause skin reactions in the sun. See Chemotherapy
Means the cells look less like normal cells and so the cancer may be more
(High Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma)
grade lymphomas are faster growing and more acute diseases than low grade.
They are usually treated with more intensive chemotherapy treatment than
low grade, but if treated at an early stage, may just be treated with radiotherapy.
Grade: Solid Tumors
the cells are closer to looking like normal cells and so the cancer may
not be as malignant. See Grade: Solid
sounds husky and croaking. Can be a symptom of lung cancer. Caused because
a tumor is pressing on a nerve that supplies the voice box.
of the lymphatic system. It is a type of lymphoma. There are two main types
of lymphoma: Hodgkin's disease and Non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hodgkin's Disease
is often very successfully treated, even when it has spread from where
it started. See Lymphatic System,
dependent cancer is one that is stimulated to grow by the presence of a
particular hormone. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are both hormone
dependent cancers. See Hormones.
(Hormone Replacement Therapies HRT)
with female sex hormones (either estrogen alone, or more usually, estrogen
and progesterone) after natural or early Menopause. Helps prevent symptoms
such as Hot Flashes and long term problems such as bone thinning.
a disease with hormones, or by blocking the action of hormones. See Hormones.
chemicals made in one part of the body which travel in the bloodstream
and make things happen in another part of the body. Some cancers are stimulated
to grow by hormones, particularly the sex hormones (testosterone in men
and estrogen in women).
effect of some hormone treatments. Sudden feeling of being very hot. May
go red in the face and sweat. Lasts for a few minutes only, but can happen
quite often in some people, particularly at night. Similar to effects noticed
by women going through the menopause or 'change of life'.
which shows up on a bone scan. Means there is damage to bone. This could
be arthritis, an old fracture or cancer in the bones. See Bone
calcium in the blood. Causes drowsiness and sickness at first and unconsciousness
if untreated. Often caused by cancer affecting the bones.