which are not fully developed. Cancer cells are immature cells. The more
immature the cancer cell compared to a normal cell, the more aggressive
that particular cancer is thought to be. See
Reconstruction carried out at the same time as the operation to remove
the breast. See Breast Reconstruction.
for ever. Normal cells reproduce a fixed number of times and then die.
Cancer cells can carry on reproducing for ever and so are immortal.
of the body to anything from outside the body (foreign). This includes
bacteria, viruses and foreign bodies. The immune response includes the
manufacture of antibodies by B lymphocytes (helped by T lymphocytes). Foreign
cells are also swallowed by cells called phagocytes. See Antibodies,
Lymphocytes, Immune System, T
of the body that fights infection and causes allergic reactions. Includes
the lymph glands, spleen and white blood cells. See
infection. The body activates the immune response when it is invaded by
bacteria or viruses. Once the body has been exposed to a disease, it remembers
it. If the disease should invade again, the immune system can react very
quickly and keep the disease at bay. This is how vaccination works. Some
people have poor immunity, which means they do not have much resistance
to disease. This can be because they have a condition which has damaged
their immune system (for example AIDS). Or it can be because chemotherapy
has temporarily reduced their white blood cell count (and so their immunity).
Response, Immune System, Vaccination.
of lymphoma. It is diagnosed by the appearance of the cells under the microscope.
This is a high grade lymphoma. See Grade:
that stimulates the body's immune system to fight cancer. Interferon and
interleukin 2 are immunotherapies. See Immune
System, Interferon, Interleukin.
put into the body as treatment. Can be permanent as in Breast Implant or
for a short time as in radioactive implant. See
Reconstruction, Radioactive Implant.
to get an erection.
(Fecal Incontinence, Urinary Incontinence)
able to control passing urine (urinary incontinence) or passing a bowel
motion (fecal incontinence).
against damage claims.
a trial plan being looked over by a group of qualified people who are nothing
to do with the trial. See Clinical Trials.
to have children.
to have children.
disease. You can have a vaccination against flu if you are having chemotherapy.
to take part in a clinical trial, or have a particular treatment, with
a full understanding of the benefits and drawbacks.
(IFN, Interferon Alpha, Interferon Beta)
of immunotherapy. Natural substance produced in the body in tiny quantities
as part of the immune response. Given in much larger quantities as treatment
to boost the immune system and help fight the cancer. There are different
types of interferon e.g. interferon alpha. See Immune
of immunotherapy. Natural substance produced in tiny quantities as part
of the immune system. Given in much larger doses as treatment to boost
the immune system and help fight the cancer. See
factor which encourages the bone marrow to make more white blood cells.
See Bone Marrow,
Factors, White Blood Cells.
of the immune response. A growth factor produced by T cells (among others)
which stimulates B cells to mature and grow. See B
cells, Immune Response, Immune
of types of lymphomas. There are three grades of lymphomas: high, intermediate
and low. Grade is used to decide on treatment. In practice, doctors tend
to group intermediate grade and high grade lymphomas together. See Grade:
Lymphomas, High Grade:Lymphomas.
given by putting a source of radiation inside the body. Sometimes called
'brachytherapy'. Can be a solid source (for example, radioactive grains
put into the prostate), or liquid (for example, radioactive iodine given
to treat thyroid cancer).
(IT Injection, Intrathecally)
into the fluid around the spinal cord. Some chemotherapy needs to be given
this way for particular types of cancer that may spread to the central
nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
fluid into the bloodstream. A bag of fluid is connected to plastic tubing
and a needle which is put into a vein, usually in the arm.
(IVU, IVP, Intravenous Pyelogram)
of the kidneys, ureters (tubes running from the kidneys to the bladder),
bladder and urethra (tube running from the bladder to the outside of the
body). A dye is given by injection. This collects in the urinary system
and can be looked at using an X-ray.
of contraception. Small shaped piece of plastic which is placed in the
womb and stops a fertilized egg from burying into the womb lining and so
which is turned inwards rather than sticking out.
(I131, Radioactive Iodine, Radio Iodine)
of iodine which is radioactive. Used to treat cancer of the thyroid.
source used to give internal radiotherapy. Often used as wires, which are
put into the tumor under anesthetic. See
Radiotherapy, Radioactive Source,
apart from other people. People having high dose chemotherapy, bone marrow
or stem cell transplant are often looked after in single rooms while their
white blood cell counts are low. This is to protect them from infection
while their immunity is low. Their visitors have to follow special rules
such as wearing aprons and washing their hands when they enter and leave
the room. The isolation restrictions vary, but often include restrictions
on what you can eat. For example, you may not be allowed salads, unpeeled
fruit, soft cheese, or cream. And you may only be allowed one or two visitors
a day. See Bone Marrow Transplant,
Dose Chemotherapy, Immunity,
of a normal chemical substance which can be radioactive. Can be used to
diagnose or treat cancer (for example, Sr89 is an isotope of strontium
used to treat bone cancer).