Hormone treatment for breast cancer. Stops
breast cancer cells from picking up Estrogen. Estrogen can encourage breast
cancer to grow.
A very rare long term side effect of Tamoxifen.
The light sensitive cells at the back of the eye are affected which causes
problems with vision. This side effect usually goes away when the drug
is stopped. See Long Term Side
Areas on the tongue which pick up different
tastes - salty, sweet, sour and bitter. Can be damaged by radiotherapy.
Side effect of some chemotherapy drugs and
of radiotherapy to the head. Some foods can taste metallic. Others may
not taste of anything at all. Taste is usually back to normal after treatment
is finished. But some radiotherapy treatment can cause permanent loss of
taste. See Chemotherapy,
Effects, Taste Buds.
(Tattoos, Pinprick Tattoos)
Permanent ink mark on the skin. Tiny pinprick
tattoos are sometimes made during radiotherapy planning. These are used
to help line up the machine for treatment. See Radiotherapy
A cancer of the lymphatic system where the
cells that have become cancerous are a type of white blood cell called
T Lymphocytes. See Lymphatic System,
Means how hot or cold something is. Used
commonly to mean a body temperature above normal (98.4oF or
37oC) as in "I have a temperature".
Colostomy that is formed after some bowel
surgery. The colostomy is formed higher up the bowel in the transverse
colon. It is done to allow the part of the bowel that has been operated
on to heal. When the operation site has healed, the colostomy is reversed
(closed up) in another operation. After this second operation, the bowel
works normally again with waste matter being passed out of the anus. See
Infertility that is not for ever. Some chemotherapy
treatment can cause infertility while you are having the treatment. But
your fertility can come back 6 months or so after treatment has finished.
This will depend on the drugs, but also on other things such as your age
and whether you are male or female. It is sometimes difficult for doctors
to say whose infertility will be permanent and whose will be temporary.
Fibrous tissue that attaches muscles to bones.
Ten Year Survival
The proportion (percentage) of people with
a particular type of cancer who are still alive 10 years after the cancer
was first diagnosed.
Type of testicular cancer most common in
men between 20 an 30 years old.
Another word for testicles. Glands in the
scrotum which produce sperm.
Cancer of one or both testicles.
Fake testicle - silicon ball put into scrotum
to replace removed testicle.
Process of feeling one's own testicles for
lumps or other abnormalities.
Male sex hormone produced by the testicles.
Infectious disease. You can have a vaccination
against tetanus if you are having chemotherapy. See Vaccination.
Infamous drug that caused birth defects.
Now being investigated as a cancer treatment because it is antiangiogenic
(stops blood vessels growing). See Angiogenesis,
The main channel of the lymphatic system
that returns lymph fluid (circulating tissue fluid) to the blood circulation.
The thoracic duct joins the blood circulatory system just above the heart.
See Circulatory System, Lymph,
Surgical operation to open the chest cavity.
Done to operate on the lungs. See Lungs.
Medical term for a blood clot. See Blood
Fungus infection which usually affects the
mouth or vagina. White patches appear and the surrounding skin is red and
sore. Occurs most often in people with low resistance to infection (e.g.
after chemotherapy) or in areas that have been treated with radiotherapy
(e.g. in the mouth).
A small gland under the top of the breast
bone. It is part of the immune system. See Immune
Gland at the base of the neck that produces
hormones which control the metabolic rate (how much energy the body uses)
and level of calcium in the blood. Cancer of the thyroid is often treated
with Iodine 131. See
Type of breast reconstruction. The skin where
the breast was is slowly stretched by an inflatable implant until it is
the same size as the natural breast.
Type of white blood cell. Lymphocytes make
up a quarter to a third of the white blood cells. Then there are two types
of lymphocytes, B and T cells. The T lymphocytes help the B cells make
antibodies as part of the immune response. A cancer of the T lymphocytes
is called a T cell lymphoma. See Antibodies,
B lymphocytes, Immune
White Blood Cells.
Anti-cancer (chemotherapy) drug.
Lymph glands at the back of the nose and
throat. Fight infections in the throat and respiratory system (lungs and
airways). See Lymphatic System.
Total Androgen Blockade
Treatment with Anti Androgens and Pituitary
Down regulators at the same time. Completely blocks the production and
effects of the sex hormones. Used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Total Body Irradiation
Giving radiotherapy to the whole body. Can
be part of the treatment necessary for a bone marrow or stem cell transplant.
See Bone Marrow Transplant,
Operation to remove the whole prostate. The
operation cannot be done via the penis (transurethrally) so there will
be a scar. The lymph glands around the prostate are usually removed as
well. Also called a Radical Prostatectomy.
Main airway that runs from the base of the
throat down to the lungs. Divides into the two main bronchi (right and
left) that supply each lung with air. See Airways,
Type of breast reconstruction. Part of the
rectus abdominus muscle in the Abdomen is transplanted to the chest wall
and used to create a new breast shape. Sometimes an implant is also used.
Cell type found in the bladder. Transitional
cell tissue can stretch, as it does when the bladder fills up. Transitional
cell cancer is the commonest type of bladder cancer in the UK.
Operation to remove the part of an enlarged
prostate which is pressing on the urethra (tube which carries urine from
the bladder out of the penis). The prostate is chipped away in tiny pieces
removed through the urethra and so there is no scar. Can be done for benign
enlarged prostate or prostate cancer.
Term used in radiotherapy planning. Radiotherapy
is often given at an angle to the body rather than directly from in front
or behind the patient. This is to prevent major body organs from being
in the radiotherapy field as much as possible. See Radiotherapy
Field, Radiotherapy Planning.
Statistical test that helps to show if there
is a real difference between different treatments being tested in a controlled
clinical trial. See Clinical Trial.
Feeding through a tube. Can be either a tube
from the nose to the stomach (nasogastric tube), or a tube that goes directly
into the stomach from the outside (gastrostomy tube).
Infectious disease. See BCG.
Another word for cancerous lump. 'Benign
tumor' can be used to mean non cancerous lump.
Temporary increase in symptoms from a cancer
after starting treatment. Happens when prostate cancer is treated with
Pituitary Down regulators if Anti Androgens are not given for the first
Genes which switch off cell multiplication.
Tumor suppressor genes can mutate and then fail to switch off cell multiplication
which contributes to a cancer forming. See Cell
Infectious disease. There are two types of
vaccination for typhoid. You can have an injection of typhoid vaccine,
as it is not live. You should not have the oral vaccine, as it is live.